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Geography Syllabus


Fundamental concepts - endogenetic and exogenetic forces - denudation processes: weathering and erosion – continental drift and plate tectonics

Concept of geomorphic cycles – landforms associated with fluvial, glacial, arid, coastal and karst cycles.


Composition and structure of the atmosphere – insolation - heat budget of the Earth - distribution of temperature -

atmospheric pressure and general circulation of winds - monsoon - jet stream - air masses – tropical and temperate cyclones – types of precipitation – classification of world climates – Koppen’s and Thornthwaite’s schemes.


Bottom relief of Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans – temperature and salinity of the oceans – density of sea water – tides and ocean currents - coral reefs - ocean deposits – sea level changes – ocean resources.


World distribution of plants and animals – forms and functions of ecosystems – biodiversity and its depletion – conservation

and management of ecosystems – environmental hazards and problems of pollution – global warming.


General character of geographic knowledge during the ancient and medieval periods – foundations of modern geography – determinism and possibilism - aerial differentiation and spatial organization – quantitative revolution


Patterns of world distribution – growth and density of population – pattern and processes of migration – demographic transition.


Site, situation, types, size, spacing and internal morphology of rural and urban settlements – city region – primate city – ranksize rule – settlement hierarchy – Christaller’s central place theory – August Losch’s theory of market centers.


Sectors of economy: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary – natural resources: renewable and non-renewable –

measurement of agricultural productivity and efficiency – crop combination and diversification – Von Thunen’s model – agricultural systems of the world – classification of industries – Weber”s and Losch’s approaches – models of transportation and transport cost – accessibility and connectivity.


Political Geography: Heartland and Rimland theories – boundaries and frontiers – concept of state, nation and nation-state.

Cultural Geography: Culture-areas – cultural regions – human races – habitat economy and society of tribal groups.


Regional concepts in Geography – concept of planning regions – types of regions – methods of regional delineation – regional hierarchy – regional planning in India – regional imbalances – fundamentals of town and country planning.


Physiography – drainage – climate – natural vegetation – soils – water resources - irrigation – agriculture – agro climatic regions – mineral and power resources – major industries and industrial regions – population distribution and growth – population problems.


Physiography – drainage – climate – natural vegetation – soils – water resources - irrigation – agriculture – mineral and power resources – major industries and industrial regions – population distribution and growth.


Types of maps – distribution maps – representation of weather and climatic data socio economic data - map symbolization – map design – map compilation.


Energy source and radiation principles – energy interaction with the atmosphere and Earth surface features - remote sensing platforms – resolutions – elements of image interpretation – remote sensing applications.

GIS: Components – data models: vector and raster data – data collection, capture and geoprocessing – analysis and display of vector and raster-based point, line and area – output for spatial decisions.


Types of data – measures of central tendency – measures of dispersion and concentration – standard deviation – Lorenz curve – methods of measuring association among different attributes – simple and multiple correlation - regression – nearest neighbour analysis – scaling techniques: rank score – weighted score – sampling techniques for geographical analysis