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History Syllabus


Sources - Archaeological sources – Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments - Literary Sources – Indigenous and Foreign Accounts.

Greek, Chinese and Arab Writers.

Pre - history and Proto - history – Paleolithic and Mesolithic, Neolithic and Chalcolithic – Indus Valley civilization, origin, date, extent, characteristics and decline.


Vedic culture. Early and Late – Social and Political Institutions – Economic conditions – Religious and Philosophical Ideas – Mahajanapadas – Republics – Economic growth – Rise of urban centres – Trade Routes – Emergence of Jainism and Buddhism – Rise of Magada and Nandas – Macedonian Invasions and their impact.


Foundation of the Mauryan Empire – Chandra Gupta – Kautilya and Arthasasthra, Asoka and his Damma – Mauryan Administration – Economy, Art and Architecture – External Contacts – Disintegration of the Empire.

Sangam Age – Sungas, Satavahanas and Kushanas: Administration, religion, society, economy, trade and commerce, culture – Art and architecture, Literature.


Guptas and Vakatakas – Harsha – Administration – Economic condition – Coinage of the Guptas – Caste system – Position of Women – Educational Institutions, Nalanda, Vikramasila and Vallabhi – Contact with neighbouring states – Sanskrit Literature – Scientific literature – Art and architecture.

The Kadambas, Gangas, Pallavas and Chalukyas of Badami – Administration – Trade guilds - growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions – Tamil Bhakthi Movements – Institutions of Temple and temple architecture.


A brief survey of the history of the Palas and Senas, Rashtrakutas, Pratiharas, Paramarahs, Kalachuris, Gahatavalas and the Chauhans, Chalukyas of Gujarat – Arab conquest, Ghazhnavi conquest, Alberuni.

The Chalukyas of Kalyani, Cholas, Cheras, Hoysalas, Pandyas – Administration and local government, growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society, conquest of Sri Lanka and South East Asia.


Expansion and consolidation – The Ghorids, The Turks, The Khaljis, The Tughlaqs, The Sayyids and the Lodis, Vijayanagar and Bahmini kingdoms – State and Religion – Concept of sovereignty – Religious movements and Sufism –

Economic Aspect – urban centres, Industries, Trade and Commerce, Land Revenue and Prices.

Mongol problem and its impact – Administrative structure – Art, Architecture and Literature.

Sources – Archaeological, Persian and non-Persian literatures, Foreign travellers’ accounts.


Sources of Mughal period. Mughal Expansion and consolidation – Babur’s establishment of Mughal rule in India: Humayun

and Surs – Akbar, Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangazeb. Mughal relations with the nobility and the Rajputs.

Jahangir – the period of stability and expansion 1611-1621; the period of crisis 1622-1627 – The Nurjahan Junta.

Administration: Sher Shah’s administrative reforms, Mughal administration, land revenue and other sources of income, Mansabdari and Jagirdari.


Decline of Mughal Empire: Political, administrative and economic causes.

Later Mughals – The Maratha movement, the foundation of Swaraj by Shivaji: its expansion under the Peshwas; Maratha Confederacy – causes of decline.

Socio – economic and cultural life under the Mughals – village society and economy, Art, architecture and literature – Trade and Commerce – Religious policy from Akbar to Aurangazeb – Urban centres and Industries – currency – Position of Women.


Rise of European powers – Expansion and consolidation of the British rule British relations with major Indian powers –

Bengal, Oudh, Hyderabad, Mysore, Marathas and Sikhs.

Administration under the East India company and crown. Paramountcy, Civil Service, Judiciary, Police and Army – Local Self – Government, Constitutional Development from 1909 to 1935.


Agrarian policy of the British, Land Revenue, Agriculture and Land Rights, Famine policy, Rural indebtedness.

Policy towards trade and Industries, condition of Labour, Trade Union Movements- Factory Legislation – Banking – Transport – Drain Theory.

Indian Society in transition – Christian missions – Socio – religious reform movements – Status of women - New Educational Policy – English language, Modern Sciences, Journalism, Indian languages and literature.


Rise of Nationalism – Revolt of 1857, Tribal and Peasant Movements – Ideologies and Programmes of Indian National Congress, Swadeshi Movement, Indian Revolutionary Movement in India and abroad.

Gandhian Mass Movements, Ideologies and Programmes of the Justice Party: Left wing politics – Movement of the depressed classes - Genesis of Pakistan – India towards Independence, and Partition.


India after Independence, Rehabilitation after partition, Integration of Indian States, the Kashmir Question.

Making of the Indian Constitution, Structure of Bureaucracy and the Police – Economic policies and the Planning process – Linguistic reorganisation of the States – Foreign policy initiatives.


World History – Concepts, Ideas and Terms – Athenian Democracy, Aristocracy, Feudalism, Humanism – Divine Right –

Nation States – Renaissance, Reformation – Enlightenment – Rights of Man – Apartheid – Imperialism, Socialism – Nazism and Facizm – Parliamentary Democracy – Commonwealth – Efforts of World peace – Cold War – Post-modernism.


Research in History – Scope and Importance of History – Objectivity and Bias in History – Causation in History – History and its auxiliary sciences – Significance of Regional History – Recent trends of Indian History.


Research Methodology – Area of Proposed Research – Sources – Primary / Secondary in the proposed area of Research

Recent Historical writings in the proposed area of Research – Some Important Historians – D.D. Kosambi – V.A.Smith – R.C.Majumdar - J.N.Sarkar – K.A.Nilakanta Sastri – R. Sathianathaier –K.K.Pillai – Ranajit Guha.