Broad classification of Animal Kingdom – Principles of taxonomy – Functional morphology of non-chordates, larval forms, origin and evolution of metazoan-theories; Structural peculiarities and affinities of minor phyla (Nemertinea, Gastrotricha, Rotifera, Kinorhynca, Nematomorpha, Acanthocephala, Pogonophora, Sipunculoidea, Echinoidea, Priapulida, Tardigrada, Pentastomida, Entoprocta, Phoronida, Ectoprocta, Brachiopoda and Lophophorates).
Classification and comparative anatomy of Prochordates and Chordates- Origin and evolution of major classes of Chordata – Geologic time scale vertebrate fossils – evolution of man and horse.
Origin of life – Theories of evolution – Mechanisms of speciation – Hardy-Weinberg law and genetic equilibrium.
Important human and veterinary parasites (Protozoan and Helminths): Life cycle and biology of Plasmodium, Leishmania, Entamoeba, Fasciola, Taenia, Schistosoma, Ascaris, Ancylostoma, Wuchereria bancrofti (filarial worm), cellular and physiological
basis of host-parasite interaction; Invertebrate vectors of human diseases (biological and mechanical vectors). Modes of transmission and pathogens. Vector control: Chemical and biological control methods. Insect pest management: Useful and harmful insects – silk worm, honey bees, lac insects, bed bug, mosquito.
Physiological processes: Nutrition, digestion, respiration, circulation (types of hearts, physiology of cardiac muscle, heart beat and regulation, composition of blood, coagulation and functions).
Osmoregulation, Theories and mechanism of muscular contraction, Nerve impulse transmission, reflex action, conditioned reflex, Chemical co-ordination, Sense organs, Excretion and Reproduction, parental care; Circadian rhythm, lunar periodicity and Bioluminescence.
Gametogenesis: Molecular events during gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage patterns and fate maps. Gastrulation and morphogenetic movement of cells.
Early development of Echinoderms, Amphibians and Birds. Cell differentiation and differential gene activity.
Organogenesis – Differentiation and development of heart, kidney. Stem cells: Characteristics, source, multipotent and totipotent cells, biomedical implications.
Types of Ecosystem – Concept of habitat ecology and ecological niches. Natural and man made ecosystems. Energy flow,
Trophic structure, Food chain and Food web, biogeochemical cycles, C, N, P, H2O (hydrologic cycle) and S cycle. Renewable and non-renewable sources of energy. Conventional and non-conventional energy sources. Environmental pollution and its ecological effects.
Structure and functions of cell and cell organelles: Plasma membrane- Composition, ultra- structure, theories of plasma membrane, membrane transport. Cell adhesion, cell-cell communication.
Mitochondria, Golgi complex, Lysosomes, SER and RER, peroxysomes, Glyoxisomes, Chloroplasts and Ribosomes: Ultrastructure and functions. Cell-cycle.
Cell fusion technique- preparation of cytoplast and karyoplast. Mitotic and meiotic cell divisions. – Mitotic apparatus and chromosome movements. Cancer cells - Characteristics and theories of Carcinogenesis.
Principles of Mendelian inheritance; Chromosomes- structure and functions; Linkage and crossing over, gene mapping, extra chromosomal inheritance. Human genetics. Normal human karyotype – Variations in karyotypes. Syndromes in Man.
Principles and methods of pedigree analysis. Genetic counseling: objectives, ethics and principles. Mutation – types and genetic disorders.
Radiation genetics. Mutagens and mutagenesis – genetic changes in neoplasia in man.
Molecular structure of DNA and RNA – replication – identification of DNA and RNA as genetic material – Microbial genetics:
conjugation, transformation, transduction and sexduction; Chemistry of DNA – polymorphism and DNA repair mechanisms;
chemistry of RNA – different types of RNA and their functions. Information transfer in prokaryotes and eukaryotes (transcription, promotors, initiators and terminators, introns and exons).
Regulation of gene action – Operon concepts – Gal and Lac Operon systems.
Immune systems: Cells, tissues and organs of immune systems; lymphatic system; Antigens: types and classes; Antibodies: structure and biological functions; Complement system and its activation pathways; Lymphocytes: development, differentiation and cellular traffic; Immune responses against bacteria, virus, toxins and parasites; Transplantation immunity; Vaccines: principles and types.
A) Biomolecules: Amino acids – structures, classification and functions. Proteins – structure and classification. Enzymes – general properties, classification and nomenclature; enzyme kinetics – Km and Vmax – factors affecting enzyme kinetics.
Carbohydrates – structure, classification and metabolic pathways (glucogenolysis, glyconeogenesis, glycolysis, Embden-Meyerhof and Parnas pathway, HMP shunt); Lipids – structure and classification, biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids.
B) Thermodynamics and photobiophysics: Laws of thermodynamics, concepts of free energy and entropy; Diffusion – Fick’s law, Osmotic gradient, Osmotic co-efficient, Gibb’s-Donnan equilibrium; Radiation – types and effects of radiation on macromolecules; biophysical aspects of vision, muscle contraction and nerve co-ordination.
A) Principles and applications, of microscopy: Bright-field, Phase contrast, Fluorescence and Transmission Electron microscopes. Chromatography- Paper, gel matrices (Gel filtration, ion-exchange and affinity) and thin layer chromatography.
B) Principles and methods of Statistical analyses in biological research: Collection, classification and presentation of data; Measures of central tendency – mean, median, mode; Measures of dispersion - variance, standard deviation, standard error, co-efficient of variation. Probability and distribution (normal, binomial and poisson). Test of significance - Student t- test, ANOVA, correlation and regression analyses.